In This Issue:
Mr. Moshe Glasser
Rabbi Chaim Jachter
Having left Avraham with their hopeful message of life and the promise of a new son, the angels sent by Hashem turn toward their new mission, one of death and destruction. But Hashem stops, almost as if reconsidering, and decides to "check with" Avraham before going forward with the plan (Bereishit 18:17). Hashem's tone seems more informative than anything else, but Avraham takes the notice of Sedom's imminent destruction as an invitation to debate. What follows is a fascinating exercise in negotiation and the power of righteousness over evil.
Some kind of exchange between Hashem and the angels sent to perform the unenviable task takes place, as Hashem provides a way out for the people of Sedom: "I will go down and see if they acted according to the complaint, and if not, I will know" (18:21). While Hashem sends the angels on their way with that proviso, Avraham decides to try to head things off at the pass and immediately starts negotiating. The verb "VaYigash," a particularly dramatic and tension-filled term reserved for moments of great danger and import, is used (as in Yehuda's use of the term in the eponymous Parasha). Avraham boldly stands before Hashem to make his case, not waiting for an invitation.
And what is the logic Avraham attempts to use to gain mercy for the inhabitants of Sedom, now that he knows Hashem has considered the possibility of letting them go? He plays a numbers game. Is the death of evil men worth the destruction of the righteous men who may live alongside them? An old philosophical idea states that the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few. Avraham attempts to go the other way, claiming that a tiny percentage should earn mercy for a much larger whole. For such is the power of the Tzaddik: his single candle can light the darkness of thousands.
Hashem's almost sarcastic answer makes it clear (18:26) that He does not expect to find such a deserving group, though He finds no fault with Avraham's math. Avraham, realizing the implication of Hashem's response, believes it to be a matter of scale. So he employs a paradox: if a man has $100,000,000, then everyone would describe him as rich. But what if he lost one penny? Would he still be rich? We would all agree that he would. What if he lost two pennies? Or three? Which penny would turn him from rich to poor? Where is that precise line? Such is the cleverness of Avraham's argument: he attempts to force Hashem, as it were, to precisely define terms of righteousness vs. evil, in the mathematical sense, and to justify His description of Sedom as evil.
Does Avraham know that his attempt, like Sedom itself, is doomed? Does he think that Hashem allowed him to "overhear" the plan specifically to permit Avraham the opportunity to convince Him otherwise? While guessing Hashem's motives is difficult, guessing Avraham's is easier. While Avraham stopped pursuing his numbers game once he hit the figure of ten, he may not have been discouraged: he had wrung a commitment out of Hashem. Even as small a number as ten could have saved such a large population.
But of what use was such a promise? Surely Avraham knew, firsthand, how evil and deserving of destruction Sedom and her sister cities were. Surely he saw the need for the end of their influence. While Avraham may have failed to save Sedom, he secured something far more powerful for his own, and our, edification: the knowledge that, in Hashem's eye, few may outweigh many. His own son was about to be born, and the stage was being set for a drama that would unfold over the next four hundred years, ending with Bnei Yisrael in their own land and in control of their own destiny. But Avraham must have seen the hard times ahead, and he surely knew the hardships they would endure. After all, Hashem Himself had told Avraham of the travails that awaited Yitzchak and his descendants (15:13-16). Perhaps he wondered if his descendants would have trouble keeping their faith, as his own wife had when she heard a seemingly bizarre prediction earlier in the
Parasha. Perhaps Avraham realized that in the course of their hardships, his descendants would now have a critical trump card: no matter how deep they might sink, no matter how far they might fall, a small number of believers and righteous people may bring them back from the brink. And it is this promise, more than any other, that took us through the darkest times of our history, when all hope seemed lost and nearly everyone strayed. There were always those few who refused to succumb to the despair, the disbelief, and brought us all back to Hashem.
Parashat VaYeira relates the famous story of the Malachim who came to Avraham after his Brit Milah in order to perform the Mitzvah of Bikur Cholim. After Avraham rushed to greet them and hosted them for a meal, one angel informed him that in a year's time, Sarah, his wife, would give birth to a son. The 89 year-old woman heard this from behind the doorway and laughed. Later, Hashem questioned Avraham, asking him, "Lamah Zeh Tzachakah Sarah…HaYipalei MeiHashem Davar," "Why did Sarah laugh...Is there anything beyond Me?" (Bereishit 18:13-14). At first glance, Hashem's comment to Avraham seems unnecessary and perhaps even unwarranted. After all, it seems from Bereishit 17:21 that Avraham knew about this baby but had not told Sarah yet, leading to her incredulous reaction when she first heard the news. Furthermore, these visitors seemed like nothing more than idolatrous merchants who had passed their tent merely by chance (see Rashi 18:4
s.v. VeRachatzu), potentially causing Sarah to mock the credibility of their outlandish predictions.
The Noam Elimelech explains Hashem's complaint in light of the principle that a person must always aspire to reach such heightened states that he is always aware of and contemplating Hashem's presence. Additionally, when Hashem and His inconceivable power hide within the bounds of nature, it should be considered as strange and out of the ordinary. However, an instance when Hashem supersedes nature and exhibits His power is in fact the natural state of His existence. The Noam Elimelech continues that Sarah did in fact subscribe to this belief, but her laugh was actually one of gleeful surprise, as she declared, "What a miracle!" Hashem complained to Avraham because she should have realized that such an action was perfectly within the everyday workings of Hashem. This is why, when Avraham asked her if she had laughed at the news, she denied doing so; she did not want Avraham to mistakenly think that she had scoffed at such ideas. When Avraham
responded, "No, you laughed," he was telling Sarah that the surprised happiness was tantamount to a scoffing laugh, regardless of her true intentions.
We, certainly, are not yet on high enough spiritual levels to accept supernatural events as commonplace. We are misled by the natural world and are so surprised when scientific advances lead us directly to the words of the Torah. For example, the Gemara in Sotah teaches us that in the first forty days of a woman's pregnancy, one can pray for the specific gender of a child. However, after that, the gender has been set. Recently, it has been discovered that in the seventh week of pregnancy, the gene which determines the gender of a baby is developed, aligning directly with the statement in the Gemara. The natural world often aids our Yeitzer HaRa and portrays aspects of life as newly determined information or unbelievable scenarios, though Hashem in actuality has always been in control from the start. It is therefore incumbent upon every Jew to move past the illusionary stumbling blocks the natural word sets before him in an attempt to
understand and appreciate the extreme power and miraculous deeds of God.
Why was Avraham chosen to be the progenitor of Bnei Yisrael? The Chumash is strangely silent about this matter, in contradistinction to its earlier explanation for Hashem's choice of Noach to continue the human race after the Mabul (see Bereishit 6:9). The reason for Avraham's selection and why the Chumash is almost silent about it are questions left mostly to Chazal and the Meforshim.
One of the few hints the Chumash does drop about Avraham's selection appears in this week's Parasha in the context of Hashem's decision to let Avraham know about the impending destruction of Sedom. Hashem says that Avraham deserves to know about Sedom because he instructs his children about the attributes of Tzedek, righteousness, and Mishpat, justice (18:19). We therefore know, ex post facto, that Avraham had some very good character traits. It is reasonable to assume that these qualities did not develop magically after Avraham was chosen, but were in fact part of his character even beforehand. This was certainly an achievement given the environment in which Avraham lived. Bavel, Avraham's ancestral homeland, was ruled by Nimrod, a grandson of Cham. Based on what the Chumash explicitly or implicitly records about Cham and his children (see, inter alia, 9:22 and 25), Nimrod was probably not the best of people. Avraham maintaining a sense of
righteousness and justice in such an environment may have been one factor which led to his selection as patriarch of the Jewish people, who place high value on justice and righteousness.
Beyond this passing reference, it is difficult to find any reason in the Chumash for Avraham's selection. Into this void steps the Midrash (Bereishit Rabbah 38:13, cited by Rashi to 11:28), which recounts the famous story of Avraham and the idols. The story goes that Avraham was once left in charge of his father's idol factory, and a person came to bring an offering to the idols. Avraham, who fully grasped the fallacy of idol worship, took an ax, smashed all the idols, and left the ax in the hand of the largest idol. Upon his father's return, Avraham claimed that the idols had argued amongst each other about who should be privileged to eat the person's offering, and had fought and demolished each other in the quarrels that broke out. Terach realized that Avraham's action potentially threatened the entire foundation of the religion of Bavel, and he brought Avraham to Nimrod, who, upon Avraham's refusal to repent, threw him into a fiery
furnace, from which Avraham miraculously was rescued. According to this Midrash, Avraham was chosen because he, of his own accord, came to the conclusion that idol worship was ridiculous and that there must be a single, omnipotent Being in charge of the world.
From where did Chazal derive the ideas mentioned in this Midrash? There seems not to be any hint to them in the text. However, Rav Yitzchak Etshalom, in his work Between the Lines of the Bible, points out that a careful reading of the text in conjunction with a small section from Sefer Yehoshua (24:2-3) in fact reveals several subtle hints to a story of this nature. The fact that Terach served Avodah Zarah is made obvious by Yehoshua 24:2, which states, "BeEiver HaNahar Yashvu Avoteichem MeiOlam Terach Avi Avraham VaAvi Nachor VaYaavdu Elohim Acheirim," "On the other side of the river your forefathers always dwelt, Terach, father of Avraham and Nachor, and they served other gods." Though the antecedent of "they" seems somewhat unclear, the "Trop" clearly indicates that "Terach, father of Avraham and Nachor" is merely a parenthetical insertion illustrative of the "forefathers" who served Avodah Zarah. It is thus clear that Terach himself
worshipped Avodah Zarah. By choosing Terach as the example of an idol worshipper, Yehoshua may be hinting that the line of that religious persuasion ended with Terach, meaning that Avraham himself abandoned it. Avraham's outspoken devotion to Hashem can be gleaned from later Pesukim (e.g. Bereishit 12:8 and Ramban ad. loc.) which recount that when Avraham came to a new place, the first thing he did was build a Mizbeiach and "call out in the name of Hashem," in essence setting up the first Kiruv center. This attitude would logically lead him to destroy idols and refuse to acknowledge any wrong in doing so. Such "disrespect" for the prevailing religion would naturally bring Avraham into conflict with Nimrod, the king of the region, who would punish him. The specific punishment of being thrown into a fiery furnace is based on two hints. First, the name of the place Avraham left was Ur Kasdim. The word Ur elsewhere in Tanach (e.g. Yeshayahu 31:9) is used to mean
fire or furnace. In addition, when Hashem appeared to Avraham to seal the Brit Bein HaBetarim, He began by saying, "Ani Hashem Asher Hotzeiticha MeiUr Kasdim," "I am Hashem Who took you out of Ur Kasdim" (15:7). This introduction is remarkably similar to the introduction of the Aseret HaDibrot, which runs, "Anochi Hashem Elokecha Asher Hotzeiticha MeiEretz Mitzrayim…" "I am Hashem your God Who took you out of the land of Egypt…" (Shemot 20:2). Elsewhere, the slavery in Mitzrayim from which Bnei Yisrael were redeemed is referred to as an iron furnace (Devarim 4:20). Accordingly, the similarly-phrased salvation experienced by Avraham very likely was from a furnace.
Rav Yaakov Meidan offers further textual support for the story of Avraham smashing the idols. A number of Avraham's later actions parallel those of the Shofeit Gidon (described in Shoftim 6-8). Both Avraham and Gidon fought wars against huge armies. Both used fear-inspiring tactics and the help of their personal servants. The avowed purpose of both wars was to rescue relatives from the enemy. Based on this comparison, Chazal similarly set up a parallel between Avraham's destruction of his father's idols and Gidon's demolition of his father's Mizbeiach to the Avodah Zarah "Baal" (Shoftim 6:25-32). Rav Meidan further notes that the Kivshan HaEish story referred to by the Midrash brings to mind the later story of Chananiah, Mishaeil, and Azariah being thrown into a fiery furnace by Nevuchadnetzar, the king of Bavel, for refusing to bow to Avodah Zarah (Daniel 3). If later monotheists were thrown into a furnace by a king of Bavel for refusal to
accept Avodah Zarah, it seems reasonable that an earlier monotheist (Avraham) in the same circumstances would have been thrown into a furnace by the king of the same Bavel. The idea that Chazal based this part of the Midrash on the story recounted in Sefer Daniel can be bolstered based on the use of almost the exact same phraseology in the Midrash and the story in Daniel. Both Nimrod (in the Midrash) and Nevuchadnetzar (in Daniel) say, "Let the God in Whom you believe save you" before casting the recalcitrant monotheists into the flames.
Even with the Midrashic explanation of Avraham's selection, the question remains why the Torah is almost silent about this matter. The Ramban (11:28) writes that the Torah did not want to include the story of the Kivshan HaEish because it would have to explain the entire background to the story, thus necessitating the unacceptable insertion of the arguments of idol worshippers into the Torah. Rav Yissocher Frand quotes Rav Simcha Zisel Brody, who elaborates that while the Torah does not necessarily cite both sides of all disputes, the present story would require giving both sides because it is in Sefer Bereishit. Chazal call Sefer Bereishit "Sefer HaYashar," "Book of the upright," and thus everything recorded in this Sefer must keep to the path of uprightness, which would include presenting both sides of a dispute. Because the Torah does not want to present both sides as if they are equally valid positions, which they obviously are not, it
omitted both sides.
Nechama Leibowitz suggests the intriguing possibility that the background of why Avraham was chosen is irrelevant. The fact that Avraham was chosen speaks for itself. To bolster this approach, she cites a Midrash which states that Hashem tests only those people who are already worthy. In other words, Avraham was chosen because he was worthy - period. Rav Amnon Bazak similarly advocates the idea that the fact that Avraham later passed many tests proves that he was worthy from the outset. In support of his contention, Rav Bazak notes the parallel language, such as the phrase "Lech Lecha," between Akeidat Yitzchak, the final test, and the original selection. In fact, further support for Rav Bazak's premise can be found in Sefer Nechemia (9:7-8), which states that Hashem first chose Avraham and only then found that he was faithful (by passing tests).
In a variation of this idea, Rav Menachem Leibtag suggests that Avraham was chosen to perform the task of being Koreih BeSheim Hashem, calling out in Hashem's name and drawing people to monotheism. Accordingly, Avraham was chosen to perform this task because he was capable of doing so; why he was the sole person capable is not important in the big picture.
Rav Yonatan Grossman even anchors this suggestion in the Chumash itself. He notes that it seems (see Bereishit 11:31) that Terach also wanted to go with Avraham to Eretz Canaan, but, because he did not do so based on a personal divine command, he did not get past Charan, the center of the civilized world. Avraham, however, went to Eretz Canaan "as Hashem had spoken to him" (12:4), and, consequently, made it all the way. These two stories are presented with almost nothing in between, indicating that the reason why Avraham received a command to go (and therefore reached his final destination) and Terach did not is not important, at least not important enough to be mentioned. Rav Grossman even proposes that if the selection were dependent on a specific reason, it might be undone by a cessation or reversal of that reason. In order to convey the sense that the selection of Avraham cannot be undone, the Torah gives no reason.
Whether one cares why Avraham was chosen or not, it is clear that Avraham's selection as patriarch of the Jewish people was a seminal event. But what exactly does it mean to be chosen by Hashem, and what are the theological underpinnings of such a selection? Based on the model of Avraham, we can suggest that to be chosen might involve being a contrarian in a place of decadence or at least having some standout against the surroundings. There is nothing to be chosen if everyone is good or the same. When a person is chosen for his fortitude in refusing to assimilate, he is given a roadmap for how to stay that way. After all, it is his own choice to be that way in the first place, and, to paraphrase Benjamin Franklin (LeHavdil), Hashem helps those who help themselves. Avraham was chosen because he resisted Bavel's indigenous religious and ethical cultures, and he was chosen in order to make sure he and his descendants would be able to remain
contrarians. For Avraham, it was Brit Milah, commands to move around so that he never got complacent, and the Brit Bein HaBetarim that kept him separate from the nations around him. As Jews in America, we similarly must maintain our identity by following the roadmap Hashem gave us - the Torah.
In this week's Parasha, the Torah describes Avraham's encounter with three angels. The angels told Avraham that he will have a child. After meeting with Avraham, the angels traveled to Sedom in order to save Avraham's nephew, Lot, from the doomed city. With Lot in hand, the angels left Sedom and proceeded to destroy the city.
The Midrash states that the angels that came to save Lot were banished to Earth by Hashem for 138 years. The reason for this punishment was that during their meeting with Lot, they told him to gather his loved ones and leave the city, because "We are about to destroy this place" (Bereishit 9:13), thereby revealing Hashem's plan. The angles were able to return on the heavenly ladder that appeared in Yaakov's dream 138 years later. Why were the angles able to return to Heaven only during Yaakov's dream? Why couldn't they return sooner?
To understand the answer, we must explain why the angels' "sin" was deserving of banishment. Their sin seems to have been their confidence in the claim that Sedom was going to be destroyed, as though the matter was already settled, when there was a possibility it would not be. Only Hashem truly could know if the people of Sedom had preformed Teshuvah and were deserving of being saved. Hashem could even decide to spare the city moments before the angels were to destroy it. It therefore was arrogant for the angels to announce Sedom's "fate" before it was sealed.
With this in mind, we can now understand why the angels were permitted to return to Heaven only during Yaakov's dream of the heavenly ladder. Had the angels known that one of Yitzchak's two sons would be forced to leave home, they would have assumed that it would be Eisav, not Yaakov. After all, Eisav was the wicked man of the field, while Yaakov spent all of his time learning. But the exact opposite occurred; Eisav remained with Yitzchak and Yaakov was forced to flee for his life. It was only at this point that the angels realized that Hashem's secrets are not revealed to anyone, even his own angels, and that it would be arrogant to think that anything from the destruction of a city to a brother fleeing his own home could be decided by someone other than Hashem. When they realized their error, they were readmitted to Heaven.
If angels are not privy to what Hashem really thinks, certainly we are not capable of discerning His thoughts. It behooves us to be exceedingly careful to guard ourselves against such arrogant ideas.
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